Jacques and Jennifer compare ways of thinking about democratic participation in decision-making - one from the more radical and more critical 1960s (Arnstein's Ladder), and the other from the neo-liberal present (the IAP2 scale). They discuss how Arnstein's Ladder takes power into account, particularly the lack of it in certain groups. In contrast, the current IAP2 scale presents itself as politically neutral, and has become popular as a management tool.
Gabriele Bammer, Learning from Arnstein's Ladder and IAP2 scale
Jennifer Borrell & Jacques Boulet